Gaganyaan spacecraft render / ISRO

The Indian crewed program faces problems 

India aims to become the fourth nation to conduct a crewed space mission. So far only the Soviet Union and US managed this achievement in 1961 and 1962. The two were followed by the People’s Republic of China in 2003. The Indian crewed program ambitions could be thwarted by several problems including bureaucracy, political struggles and the COVID-19 pandemics.

Tests of the Chandrayaan-2 Vikram lander and Pragyan rover / Credits: ISRO

India announces a new lunar mission 

The first years of the 21st century saw China, Japan and India consecutively launch dedicated lunar research missions. The Chinese Chang’e 1, Indian Chandrayaan-1 and Japanese Kaguya missions all conducted remote observations of the Moon between 2007 and 2008. One could claim that a small lunar race was getting started. Although on the long-term China have successfully gained a lead in the exploration of the Moon, in this post I would like to focus on the Indian achievements.

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